From the v8.0 Rulebook:
Most non-explosive, non-chemical weapons that might have been in existence before 1650 AD are allowed.
A safe weapon is one that will not break bones, teeth, or regularly leave bruises when it strikes a person. Every weapon must be checked for legality by the Champion or a designated reeve prior to its use on the field each day. The hallmark of weapon legality is player safety, and as such safety will always trump technical compliance with weapon construction requirements.
While a weapon may meet the technical requirements for legality it may still be unsafe in its construction or in the manner in which it is used. A reeve or Champion may deem a weapon unsafe for use even though it may meet the technical construction requirements.
Some examples of technically legal but unsafe weapons might be weapons with cores so flexible as to risk core failure or other safety issues during reasonable combat, weapons made with overly hard foam, weapons with excessive tape, or weapons with excessive mass.
Use of unsafe weapons or safe weapons in an unsafe manner may result in removal from play by the Champion, a reeve, or other group official.
Paragraphs in bold listed above are part of an official rules clarification found here: [Overly Flexible/Breakable Weapons]
This refers to the base of the weapon to which padding is affixed. For melee weapon cores the best things to use are carbon/graphite rods (such as from non-metallic golf clubs), kite spar, bamboo, PVC tubing or fiberglass. Other materials will be checked for safety on a case-by-case basis.
Metal and wooden cores are not legal, although metal may be used to counter-weight weapons provided it is permanently attached, and not in a place that may inadvertently strike an opponent.
The ends of all weapon cores must be blunted by capping them with a layer of foam and tape at a minimum. For throwing weapons acceptable options are denim, loose rubberbands, sweatshirt material, or similar.
Refers to the unpadded part of the weapon (where it is often held).
This refers to the padded portion of a weapon at the end of the handle, not intended for striking. The end of the pommel must have at least a 2” cross-section perpendicular to the handle and must be padded.
This refers to an optional piece at the juncture of the blade and handle designed to deflect blows and protect the hand from injury. Cross guards must be padded and all tips must have at least a 2” cross section parallel to the handle.
Only Weapon Types with this descriptor may have a striking surface at both ends. This may be either a Stabbing Tip or a Slash edge unless otherwise restricted by the Weapon Type. Must still adhere to the construction requirements of the Weapon Type for the extra striking surface.
Example: A 6ft. Great Weapon could have a striking surface on each end with a minimum of 18” of Strike-Legal in order to slash with both ends OR could have one 18” slashing end and one 6” thrusting end. Both configurations would require each end to be 1/3rd padded.
This refers to the end of a weapon that is not the pommel, regardless of whether or not it is used to stab. Stabbing tips must not protrude more than 1.5” through a 2.5” ring when uncompressed, nor end in an angle less than 90 degrees. You must not be able to feel core through a stabbing tip.
Padded or Courtesy Padding
This refers to the portion of the weapon that is designed to limit injuries from incidental contact with that part of the weapon and is not intended for striking. These portions of a weapon should have at least 1/2” of foam over the weapon’s core. A weapon is required to have courtesy padding over the entire circumference of its Strike-Legal length.
This refers to the portions of the weapon that are sufficiently padded to prevent injury when used to strike an opponent at full force. These portions may not break bones, teeth, or regularly leave bruises when it strikes a person and must have at least one 2.5” cross section from edge to edge. Strike-Legal surfaces must have at least 1” of foam over the weapon core, measured from the furthest point on the blade to the surface of the core. Stab-only weapons (other than projectiles) are still required to have 6” of Strike-Legal surface extending from the end of the weapon down its length on any stabbing end for safety. Strike-Legal must be covered in a durable, opaque cloth. Unless otherwise noted, cloth tape is not an acceptable cover. Non-striking padded surfaces within ½” of a striking surface must still be covered with a cloth cover.
The following is an official clarification found here: [Heavy Padding Clarification]
This refers to portions of the weapon that meet all of the requirements of Strike-Legal, but has at least a 4” cross section from edge to edge (instead of 2.5"), and at least 1” of foam over the weapon core. It is considered Strike-Legal for the purposes of scoring hits.
‘’’Example:’’’ ‘’You measure a scimitar from the bottom of the pommel to the tip of the weapon, not “along the curve.”’’
Indicates a weapon intended to be able to score a hit by swinging the weapon in such a way that the side (as opposed to the tip) of the weapon strikes an opponent.
Indicates a weapon intended to be able to score a hit by thrusting the weapon in such a way that the tip (as opposed to the sides) of the weapon strikes an opponent. Thrust only weapons must have at least 6” of Strike-Legal padding.